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(2002), which the authors suggested could contribute to motivation for pedophilic acts.
The pedophilic offenders in the study had elevated psychopathy and cognitive distortions compared to healthy community controls.
According to FBI agent Ken Lanning, "collecting" pornography does not mean that they merely view pornography, but that they save it, and "it comes to define, fuel, and validate their most cherished sexual fantasies".
Although what causes pedophilia is not yet known, researchers began reporting a series of findings linking pedophilia with brain structure and function, beginning in 2002.
A diagnosis is further specified by the sex of the children the person is attracted to, if the impulses or acts are limited to incest, and if the attraction is "exclusive" or "nonexclusive".
Like the DSM, this system's criteria require that the person be at least 16 years of age or older before being diagnosed as a pedophile.
Although mostly documented in men, there are also women who exhibit the disorder, The DSM-5 does not list hebephilia among the diagnoses; while evidence suggests that hebephilia is separate from pedophilia, the ICD-10 includes early pubertal age (an aspect of hebephilia) in its pedophilia definition, covering the physical development overlap between the two philias.
Some studies have found that pedophiles are less cognitively impaired than non-pedophilic child molesters.
This was interpreted as underlying their failure to inhibit their criminal behavior.
Wilson and Cox (1983) studied the characteristics of a group of pedophile club members.
These include the presence of sexually arousing fantasies, behaviors or urges that involve some kind of sexual activity with a prepubescent child (with the diagnostic criteria for the disorder extending the cut-off point for prepubescence to age 13) for six months or more, or that the subject has acted on these urges or suffers from distress as a result of having these feelings.
The criteria also indicate that the subject should be 16 or older and that the child or children they fantasize about are at least five years younger than them, though ongoing sexual relationships between a 12- to 13-year-old and a late adolescent are advised to be excluded.